According to the article of Jails in the United States: The “Old-New” Frontier in American Corrections by Arthur J. Lurigio, each year, the jail in United States process about 12 million admissions. In 2014, the average populations that being confined in jails each day is about 744600. The problem of overcrowding in jails becomes even more prominent. The reasons behind the rise in jail population include the stringent control policy on crime and drug as well as enforcement strategies. The construction of the of new jails in last decade did not solve the overcrowding problem. Jails are often run by elected officials, and once new officials becomes the incumbent, they usually change the policy or structure of the jail, which is not disrupt the continuaty in practice(Champion, 2008). The court is also partly responsible for the overcrowding problem of the jails, The jail administrators exerts little influence on the population of the jails, while the upstream figures such as the probation officers, prosecutors, policy officers have much control over the population
For the community and the justice and correction system, jails are an essential factor and resources in them. Jails are homes to the group of impoverished, the homeless, those with mental illness or addiction.While jails are often experiencing inadequate staff and low budget. Jails in United States has much less shrift as the prison.
The number of women in Jails are increasing rapidly, especially in the period of the middle of 2010 and 2014. There is an increase of 18% in the female population in jail, while the number of male population has decreased 3% in the same period. Trauma, illness, substance use disorders are much likely to happen on the female population than their male counterpart. As a result, program and intervention which is sensitive to gender is needed in jail for female detainee. Considering more women presence in jail, more women and children friendly conditions should be constructed, population management should be approached with profession and care.
From the discussion with the leaders of varies function in the eight jails across United States, six factors are spotted which are essential in designing the structure and operations of the jail, reentry strategies, cross system training, leadership, information sharing, coordination and target group definition.
I believe the reentry strategy and process is a very important topic and an issue worth exploring. As for the matter, I believe the first step is to define the challenges in the reentry process, including personal barriers and structural barriers. Substance use disorders should be taken care of in the reentry process. Female detainees are more likely to experience trauma, which would lead to disorders like substance use and other struggles permeating their lives. Relevant programme should be implemented for the detainees and their families, which may include personal training and family training to modify substance using behavior. Families should be encouraged to participated in it too. I agree that the solitary confinement could be a serious issue in the jail, and the solitary could contribute to emotional trauma for the detainees. The solitary confinement should be used more humanly. Jails are an important part of the correction system and currently they are ill-equipped to meet the needs of the detainees and help them.
Arthur J. Lurigio, 2016, “Jails in the United States: The “Old-New” Frontier in American Corrections” The Prison Journal 2016, Vol. 96(1) 3 –9 © SAGE
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Champion, D. 2008. Point of view: Jail and jail history. In G. F. Cornelius (Ed.), The American jail: Cornerstone of modern corrections (pp. 231-254). Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson.