I reviewed two journal articles by Guanglong and Shen that talk about the weakness of Darwin’s evolution theory. Both articles mention the issues in gradualism and the molecular biology contradicting the theory of evolution. In addition, each article proposed some new reasons to counter the evolution theory. The following would present their argument.
According to Darwin’s theory, Natural selection can only work by slight, continuous, and beneficial mutations, so it can not produce large or sudden changes that occur in short times . As a result, there is no leap in the natural world. In Guanglong’s paper, the phenomena of explosive development in life in the history of more than 3 billion years is proposed. For example, the Cambrian Life Eruption. This cannot be explained by evolutionary theory, and it can be seen that the evolution of creatures has not always evolved slowly, sometimes there is a leap, and the evolution of living creatures is not always continuous and gradual( Guanglong, 2008).
Shen( 2012) also points out that in the 3.8 billion-year fossil record, the most puzzling part is Cambrian Life’s Explosion or Cambrian Life’s Big Bang. Most animal species appear as the explosion in the Cambrian period. In 1909, Walcott discovered fossils of various marine animals in the Bokis shale of Canada in the Cambrian era. In the early 1990s, the Nanjing Institute of Paleontology at the Chinese Academy of Sciences and experts Chen Junyuan introduced them to the study of fossils in Chengjiang County, Yunnan Province. The “big animal explosion” began to shake the world. “New York Times” called it one of the most amazing discoveries of the 20th century. Chengjiang is now known as the ” Holy Land of fossils,” and has been listed as a key international protected area by UNESCO( Shen, 2012).The archeological discovery of the “Chengjiang fossils in China” attracted the attention of the world media and shocked the archaeological and biological communities. The Chengjiang fossils belong to the Early Cambrian fossils (the first 550 million years). There are also a large number of geological data of “explodes” life. It can be seen that in the Cambrian period (about 570 million to the first 500 million years ago), almost all known animal species had their own representatives. Before the Cambrian period, not only were the fossils of multicellular organisms very rare, but none of the Neoproterozoic fossils found so far could be confirmed as known animals. In other words, the vast majority of animal species suddenly emerged during the Cambrian period( Shen, 2012). According to Darwin’s theory of biological evolution, the emergence of multi-celled animals in the Cambrian period must have undergone a long period of early evolution. However, in fact, so far We have not yet found any evidence of this intermediate evolutionary process.
Molecular evolutionary neutrality
In Guanglong’s paper, Darwin believes that all creatures are selected by nature, and no one raised any doubt about this in the more than 100 years since the publication of the Origin of Species in 1859. However, in 1968, the Japanese geneticist Kimura Kimori first proposed the theory of molecular evolutionary neutrality, which challenged Darwin’s natural selection theory( Guanglong, 2008). In the following year, the American scholars JL King and TH Jukes affirmed this theory with a large amount of molecular biology data. The important part is that the theory of neutrality can explain many of the evolutionary phenomena of life that cannot be explained by the natural selection theory of Darwinian( Guanglong, 2008). Of course, the neutral theory only emphasizes that the majority mutation at the molecular level is neutral and does not say that all mutations are neutral. It should be said that the theory of neutrality fills a blank point of life evolution from the molecular level( Guanglong, 2008).
Shen (2012）also points out that In recent years, the in-depth development of molecular biology and research at the molecular level has evolved into a new direction. At the beginning, people thought that the sequence differences of biomolecules can be used to calculate the evolutionary time and compare the degree of molecular differences to determine the evolutionary relationship. This has become a favorable evidence for evolution. However, further developments have disrupted the evolutionary system( Shen, 2012). Because studying the sequence of different molecules lead to different evolutionary pedigrees. In Science magazine in 1998, molecular geneticist Elizabety Pennisi pointed out: “Comparing the microbial genomes in a new order, the tree of life is thrown into confusion, and the classification of all life is doubted.” Robert Feldman concludes: “What kind of gene will be used determines which kind of evolutionary position will be produced.” If evolution is a fact, there must be an orderly evolutionary process, but in-depth research in molecular biology shows that there is no such evolutionary system. It is a totally chaotic relationship. How can evolution exist?( Shen, 2012)
In addition, Guanglong argues that Darwin only admits gradual extinction, and does not believe sudden extinction( Guanglong, 2008). In “The Origin of Species,” he said: ” the usual generational succession was not interrupted even once. There was no radical change,” while in the long history of life evolution, the sudden destruction of biological lige occurred from time to time. In view of the large number of facts, Dvor first proposed the “new catastrophe theory.”, which received the support of many scholars( Guanglong, 2008). They believe that in the history of the evolution of the universe and the earth, including the history of life evolution, there have been a series of sudden and catastrophic events that have caused sudden destruction. Sudden extinction is characterized by abruptness and transientity. Moreover, because an asteroid or a comet, hits the earth, catastrophic phenomena are ubiquitous in the entire process of the development of things( Guanglong, 2008). It is a basic phenomenon of the evolution of the universe and the earth, and the evolution of life. The death of things plays a major role. From this it can be seen that there is not only the gradual extinction advocated by Darwin in the natural world, but there is also sudden distinction that Darwin does not recognize.
Shen（2012） raised a new point that evolution cannot explain the evolution or characteristics of many organs of biology. Evolutionists believe that many trace organs, such as the body’s tail vertebrae, cecum, and pineal glands, are products of biological “degeneration.” The coccyx is degenerated from the monkey’s tail, but according to the concept of evolutionary natural selection, unless it can be proved that the existence of the tail is absolutely harmful, the monkey can be eliminated and evolved into human( Shen, 2012). However, this is unlikely to be the truth. In addition, the tail bone is the attachment point for many muscles; the cecum is the second line of immune organs; the pineal body has a direct relationship with vision. According to the theory of evolution, the trace organs of the human body today should be reduced to zero. Many more complex organs, such as eyes, ears, and lungs, have no effect when organisms have not yet evolved to completion. They cannot see, hear, and breathe, so there is no reason to make the organism an adaptor of environment in the course of evolution. In other words, the functions of the organs must be revealed first, then the environment can choose them( Shen, 2012).
Shen, “Shaking the Foundation of the Theory of Evolution.” Chinese Journal of social science (2012).
Ganglong, “The weakness of the Theory of Evolution”.Chinese Journal of social science (2008)